Milestones In Marine Microbiology (2022)

Table of Contents
Early Discoveries First observations of aquatic microbes 'Golden Age' of Microbiology First attempts at cultivating microbes from the ocean Publishing of the earliest known book specifically dedicated to marine microbes van Niel begins his summer course in microbiology at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station ZoBell publishes seminal marine microbe text Radiotracers first applied to study the activity of marine microbes Establishment of the Microbial Ecology course at the Marine Biological Laboratory Importance of marine microbes in marine food webs and dissolved material cycling first recognized Molecular Era Analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequences are used to describe the relatedness of organisms leading to the first description of the archaea Cultivation of the first barophilic (or pressure-adapted) microorganisms from the deep sea Nuclepore filters and fluorescent staining are used to count marine microbes Discovery of hydrothermal vents in the deep sea, along with bacteria that thrive only in these high-pressure, high-temperature environments Discovery of the abundant marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus Discovery of the abundant marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus Establishment of the Hawai'i Ocean Time-series and the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study Abundance of viruses in aquatic environments first described Molecular cloning and DNA sequencing is first applied to planktonic marine microbes and leads to discovery of SAR11, one of the most abundant bacteria in the ocean Mesophilic archaea discovered in the marine water column Genomic Era Large-insert DNA libraries are first applied to study metabolic function of uncultivated microbes in the ocean, leading to the discovery of a new type of energy harvest (or phototrophy) in the sea Publication of first complete genomes of marine microbes A fuller picture of the microbes in a marine environment are seen using metagenomics Global Ocean Sampling, Tara Oceans, and Malaspina Expeditions Discovery of Lokiarchaeota; believed to be most recent common ancestor of eukaryotes Future Connecting the dots FAQs Videos

Introduction

Marine microbes are abundant and diverse. But their tiny size means they are not easy to study. First observed in 1675, marine microbes were not cultured in the lab for over 100 years allowing for further observation. Molecular advances and large DNA libraries allowed for many advances since the 1970s and there is still much to learn!

Thanks to David Karl and Jody Deming for review of this timeline.

This work was supported by the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative of the National Academy of Sciences under award number NAKFI DBS17. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Academies Keck Futures Initiative or the National Academy of Sciences.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (1)

Early Discoveries

1675-1883

1675

First observations of aquatic microbes

The Dutch lensmaker Antonie van Leeuwenhoek devises a simple, yet powerful single lens microscope that allows him to observe microbes for the first time. He calls the small creatures "wee animalcules."

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (2)

Colored engravings of the "animalcules" Leeuwenhoek saw under his microscope. Credit: Anton van Leeuwenhoek, U.S. Public Domain

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (3)

An illustration of one of Leeuwenhoek's microscopes. Credit: Dobell and van Leeuwenhoek, 1960

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (4)

'Golden Age' of Microbiology

1884-1975

1884

First attempts at cultivating microbes from the ocean

Adolph-Adrien Certes, a student of Louis Pasteur (the French microbiologist known for his breakthrough work on vaccinations and, of course, pasteurization), reports on his deep-sea microbial cultivation experiments from the French Travailleur and Talisman expeditions.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (5)

An illustration of the Talisman ship. Credit: Sous les mers; campagnes d'explorations du "Travailleur" et du "Talisman" (BHL)

1894

Publishing of the earliest known book specifically dedicated to marine microbes

The German microbiologist Bernhard Fischer publishes his treatise Die Bakterien des Meeres (Bacteria of the Sea).

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (6)

An early diagram showing how carbon gets moved around in the sea. Credit: Die Bakterien des Meeres via Biodiversity Heritage Library

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (7)

The cover page of Die Bakterien des Meeres. Credit: Marine Microbiology: A Monograph on Hydrobacteriology

1930

van Niel begins his summer course in microbiology at Stanford University's Hopkins Marine Station

Running until 1962, Cornelis Bernardus van Niel influences generations of microbiologists with his Hopkins Marine Station summer microbiology course, bringing the Dutch techniques of enrichment culture (a method that allows for the growth of a specific microorganism) to the U.S. and highlighting the tremendous metabolic diversity of microbes in the environment.

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The Stanford Hopkins Marine Laboratory as it appeared in 1918. Credit: Photograph courtesy of Harold A. Miller Library and Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University

(Video) Milestones in Microbiology Dedication - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

1944

ZoBell publishes seminal marine microbe text

Claude ZoBell, often known as the "father of marine microbiology," publishes the foundational text Marine Microbiology: A Monograph on Hydrobacteriology.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (9)

Claude Zobell prepares a water sampling bottle on the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier, November 1952. Photograph courtesy of Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego.

1951

Radiotracers first applied to study the activity of marine microbes

The discovery, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben, of a radioactive isotope of carbon (14C) allows oceanographer Einer Steeman-Nielsen to follow the uptake of carbon into microbial cells. Scientists begin to quantify the activity of microbes at the base of the food web without having to first culture them in the lab.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (10)

Credit: Wikimedia Commons

1971

Establishment of the Microbial Ecology course at the Marine Biological Laboratory

Holger Jannasch begins the summer Microbial Ecology course (now the Microbial Diversity course) at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

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The Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA as it appeared sometime between 1930 and 1945. Photo Courtesy of Boston Public Library.

1974

Importance of marine microbes in marine food webs and dissolved material cycling first recognized

Lawrence Pomeroy publishes his work on the role of microbes in the ocean's food web, later dubbed "The Microbial Loop."

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (12)

A microbe absorbs dissolved molecules in the water column. Credit: Smithsonian Institution

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A virus kills a phytoplankton. Credit: Smithsonian Institution

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Molecular Era

1976-1995

1976-1977

Analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequences are used to describe the relatedness of organisms leading to the first description of the archaea

Carl Woese and George Fox first propose using rRNA gene sequences as molecular markers for determining the relatedness and organization of life, including marine microorganisms. Ribosomal RNA gene cloning and sequencing from the environment would later be applied to uncultivated microbes in hydrothermal vent symbionts (in 1984) and lead to the discovery of some of the most abundant microbes in the ocean.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (15)

A section of bacterial rRNA, the RNA that serves as the building blocks for the cell's protein-making factories. Credit: Molecular and Cellular Biology WikiProject

(Video) Milestones in Science: Leptospirosis

1977-1981

Cultivation of the first barophilic (or pressure-adapted) microorganisms from the deep sea

Pressure makes it difficult to study specimens collected from the deep sea—at a depth of 6,500 feet, the pressure is almost 200 times what we feel on land. A concerted effort across three laboratories, those of Holger Jannasch, Aristides Yayanos, and Rita Colwell, is undertaken to recover uniquely pressure-adapted ('barophilic') microorganisms from the deep sea. The work eventually leads to the discovery of the first barophile in 1979 and an obligate barophile in 1981 by Yayanos. Colwell and her then-graduate student, Jody Deming, demonstrate that entire communities of microorganisms can be barophilic using the microbes found in the guts of deep-sea animals.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (16)

Some sea cucumbers found in the deep-sea are home to barophilic, or "pressure-loving," bacteria in their guts. Credit: NOAA Ocean Explorer, DeepCCZ expedition

1977

Nuclepore filters and fluorescent staining are used to count marine microbes

A technique is developed for creating a plastic filter with uniform holes so tiny that bacteria can be filtered from seawater. Prior to the invention of these Nuclepore filters, most estimates of microbial abundance in the ocean were based on the number of microbes that could be cultured in rich liquid media or on solid medium in Petri dishes. The development of staining techniques, first used by ecologist John Hobbie, confirms that microbes are hundreds of times more abundant in the environment than estimated using culture-based methods.

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A modern fluorescent stain, called DAPI, shows magnified bacterial marine cells. Credit: Anthony D'Onofrio, www.biology101.org, Flickr

1977-1982

Discovery of hydrothermal vents in the deep sea, along with bacteria that thrive only in these high-pressure, high-temperature environments

An expedition to the Galapagos Rift—where tectonic plates slowly spread apart—provides the first visual confirmation of hydrothermal vents, pouring out heated water full of minerals, and a surprise discovery that dense ecosystems of previously unknown organisms are supported by the vent fluid chemistry. Many of these animals depend on symbiotic relationships with bacteria that harvest energy from chemicals like hydrogen sulfide released from the vents. In a follow-on expedition to the East Pacific Rise—the fastest seafloor spreading zone—black smokers are discovered, releasing fluids at an extraordinary temperature of 250°C/482°F (kept liquid by the high pressure of the deep sea). This leads to the discovery of deep-sea hyperthermophiles—organisms that thrive in extremely hot environments—living in a subseafloor biosphere.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (18)

Riftia tube worms living near a hydrothermal vent. Credit: NOAA

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A black smoker hydrothermal vent. Credit: NOAA

1979

Discovery of the abundant marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus

Tiny fluorescent cells observed by John Waterbury on an expedition to the Arabian Sea introduces researchers to Synechococcus. Since then, they have been found in large quantities in almost all ocean water, serving as an important base of the food web for fish and larger mammals.

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The green fluorescence shows chemical reactions in living Synechococcus cells. Credit: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

1988

Discovery of the abundant marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus

Sallie (Penny) Chisholm discovers this tiny but super abundant photosynthesizer— estimated to be more abundant than any other on the planet, and responsible for producing 20 percent of the oxygen released to the atmosphere every year.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (21)

A colored image of Prochlorococcus. Credit: Anne Thompson, Chisholm Lab, MIT

(Video) Deep-sea microbe sheds light on primordial evolutionary milestone

1988

Establishment of the Hawai'i Ocean Time-series and the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study

Two long-term ocean monitoring programs are established—the Hawai'i Ocean Time-series at Station ALOHA by David Karl and Roger Lukas and the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study by Anthony Knap. Both programs capture regular physical and biological measurements in order to better understand nutrient cycling, where microbes play a huge role. The information is also important for tracking the impact of climate change and ocean acidification on marine microbes.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (22)

Scientists conducting research for the BATS project. Photo Courtesy of Craig Carlson.

1989

Abundance of viruses in aquatic environments first described

While previous researchers had known viruses existed in the ocean, Øivind Bergh and colleagues first report their abundance in marine waters. Later developments in fluorescent staining show that even these high abundances vastly underestimated the actual number of viruses in seawater, now thought to be close to one billion per milliliter. Viruses play important roles in aquatic ecosystems by transferring genes among microbes and by lysing, or killing, microbes.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (23)

A virus called a cyanophage that attacks cyanobacteria. The bar indicates a scale of 100 nm. Credit: Bin Ni, Chisholm Lab, MIT

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (24)

A sampling of cyanophages that glow from a stain in this magnified image. Credit: Matthew Sullivan, Chisholm Lab, MIT

1990

Molecular cloning and DNA sequencing is first applied to planktonic marine microbes and leads to discovery of SAR11, one of the most abundant bacteria in the ocean

Microbes in the SAR11 clade (SAR stands for the Sargasso Sea where they were first discovered by Stephen Giovannoni and colleagues) are the most abundant organic carbon-eating bacteria in the ocean and can make up to 25 percent or more of microbial cells at any given time. DNA sequencing and the ability to clone molecular structures was necessary for the discovery of SAR11 as no cultures of the organism existed at that time.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (25)

A 3D model of a SAR 11 microbe, also called Pelagibacter. Image courtesy of Xiaowei Zhao.

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A magnified look at SAR11. Credit: Kehau Manoi courtesy of Michael Rappe

1992

Mesophilic archaea discovered in the marine water column

Prior to 1992, archaea were thought to exist as one of three types—either an extremist that lives in very salty environments (a halophile), an extremist that lives in scalding hot water (a thermophile), or as a methane producer (a methanogen). In separate reports, marine microbiologists Edward Delong and Jed Fuhrman show that archaea also inhabit coastal and deep-water habitats as drifting plankton. And what's more, they are abundant in these locations.

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Genomic Era

1996-present

1996-2001

Large-insert DNA libraries are first applied to study metabolic function of uncultivated microbes in the ocean, leading to the discovery of a new type of energy harvest (or phototrophy) in the sea

Discovering microbes by trying to culture them is not easy. Instead, scientists use DNA sequencing to identify just the presence of the microbes' genes without first having to culture them. An early method for doing this involves cloning large pieces of environmental DNA into easily grown E. coli bacteria. Eventually, these techniques lead to the discovery of proteorhodopsin, a protein related to one found in the human eye, which harvests light energy and had not previously been found in bacteria.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (29)

A model of the proteorhodopsin protein structure. Courtesy of UniProt

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2003-2005

Publication of first complete genomes of marine microbes

The full genomes of several marine microbes including Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, Pirellula, Silicibacter pomeroyii, the cold-adapted bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea, and the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana are published ushering in the genomic era of marine microbiology.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (30)

A visual representation of prochlorococcus' genome. Credit: Katherine Huang, Chisholm Lab, MIT

2004

A fuller picture of the microbes in a marine environment are seen using metagenomics

The first full genetic snapshot of a marine environment—the Sargasso Sea—is completed in 2004 by J. Craig Venter, using shotgun metagenome methodology identifying over one million previously unknown genes.

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DNA taken from the ocean is used to determine the types of species that live there.

2003-2013

Global Ocean Sampling, Tara Oceans, and Malaspina Expeditions

As it becomes more apparent that marine microbes play critical roles in the marine environment, extensive expeditions that cross multiple ocean basins prioritize studying the microbial world. In 2003, the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition samples 41 locations spanning a distance of 8,000 km (almost 5,000 miles) from the Atlantic to the Pacific, collecting an unprecedented amount of information on marine microbial diversity and abundance. Then in 2010, the Malaspina Expedition circumnavigates the globe, researching the metabolic diversity of microbes in the deep-sea. The Tara Oceans Expeditions spans 2009 to 2013. Crossing the globe, they make monumental strides in understanding the diversity of microbial life in the ocean.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (32)

The Tara Oceans Expedition makes its way through Arctic waters. Credit: ©Joseph Ppevek / Tara Expéditions

2015

Discovery of Lokiarchaeota; believed to be most recent common ancestor of eukaryotes

Lokiarchaeota found in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent show an evolutionary link between archaea and the more complex eukaryotes. After examining the archaeal DNA, researchers discover that these microbes share about 100 genes for complex cellular functions with eukaryotes, suggesting they are the closest living prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes.

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The hydrothermal vent, Loki's Castle, where Lokiarchaea were found. Credit: Centre for Geobiology (University of Bergen, Norway)

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Lokiarchaea are named after the vent where they were found, Loki's Castle, referencing Loki, the trickster Norse god. Credit: "The Punishment of Loki", by Louis Huard, U.S. Public Domain

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (35)

Future

Present - ?

Connecting the dots

The last thirty years have seen rapid discoveries around the diversity of microbial life enabled by new technologies. In the future, we will need to make sense of this vast diversity and better understand how all these organisms interact with one another and with animals of all sizes.

Milestones In Marine Microbiology (36)

Within hours of birth, the Hawaiian bobtail squid attracts bioluminescent bacteria, which colonize a special light organ above its eyes. Credit: Nick Hobgood

(Video) TWiM 88: A century of excellence in microbiology

FAQs

What are the milestones of microbiology? ›

Early microscopes make tiny life forms visible.
  • 1881 - A Culture Medium: Culture techniques make it possible to “grow” bacteria.
  • 1884 - Mechanisms of Disease: Scientists learn how to connect a specific bacterium to a disease.
  • 1929 - The Discovery of.

What are historical events of microbiology? ›

Contributions To:
  • Microscopy. 1677 Antony Leeuwenhoek. 1882 Paul Ehrlich. ...
  • Culture Methods. 1882 Robert Koch. 1887 R. J. Petri.
  • Germ Theory of Disease. 1860 Louis Pasteur. 1867 Joseph Lister. ...
  • Defense or Control of Microbes. 1796 Edward Jenner. 1850 Ignaz Semmelweis. ...
  • Virology. 1892 Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovski. ...
  • Molecular Methods. 1977 W.

What is the scope of marine microbiology? ›

marine microbiology is to deal with many practical problems in agricultural industry,It is one of the most demanded fields in the economy with a lot of applications in various areas. Mainly clinical and industrial microbiology is in high demand in modern world as compared to the marine microbiology.

What are the four major marine microbes? ›

Invisible to the naked eye, there is a teeming world of microbes living in the ocean with a complexity and diversity that rivals all other life on Earth. They include bacteria, viruses, archaea, protists, and fungi.

Who is the milestone in the history of development of microbiology? ›

Microbiology came into being largely through studies of bacteria. The experiments of Louis Pasteur in France, Robert Koch in Germany, and others in the late 1800s established the importance of microbes to humans.

Who is the father of marine microbiology? ›

Claude ZoBell, often known as the "father of marine microbiology," publishes the foundational text Marine Microbiology: A Monograph on Hydrobacteriology . Claude Zobell prepares a water sampling bottle on the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier, November 1952.

What are the golden ages of microbiology? ›

The proof of microorganisms as the real etiological agents of infectious diseases marks the zenith of the period between 1850 and 1915 known as the Golden Age of Microbiology.

What are the recent discoveries in microbiology? ›

  • Scientists Discover Compound Found in Trees Has Potential to Kill Drug-Resistant Bacteria.
  • The Shape of Coronavirus Affects Its Transmission, Finds Study.
  • Heterogeneous Development of Beta-Cell Populations in Diabetes-Resistant and -Susceptible Mice.
  • New Algorithm Uncovers the Secrets of Cell Factories.

What are the major discoveries of the golden age of microbiology? ›

Between Pasteur and Koch, the Golden Age of Microbiology achieved its greatest discoveries. Pathogens were identified, vaccines created, methodologies perfected, and foundations established that support modern research today.

What are 5 responsibilities of a marine biologist? ›

Marine Biologist Duties & Responsibilities
  • Study marine life in natural or controlled environments.
  • Collect data and specimens.
  • Study characteristics of species.
  • Assess human impact.
  • Monitor and manage populations.
  • Report findings.
  • Teach.
25 Jun 2019

Why is marine microbiology important? ›

Marine microbes play many important roles in the Earth system: they influence our climate, are the major primary producers in the ocean, dictate much of the flow of marine energy and nutrients, and provide us with a source of medicines and natural products.

What is the importance of studying microbiology in the field of fisheries? ›

Importance of Microbiology in aquaculture/fisheries:

Protect fish and larvae from various microbial infections. Improve the overall quality of water. Control the development of microbial and insect-infected diseases.

What are the 3 types of marine life? ›

Three main groups of ocean life are plankton, nekton, and benthos. Plankton float in the water. Nekton swim through the water. Benthos live on the ocean floor.

What are the 7 classes of microbes? ›

Microorganisms are divided into seven types: bacteria, archaea, protozoa, algae, fungi, viruses, and multicellular animal parasites ( helminths ).

What are the 5 major microbial groups? ›

Microbial diversity is truly staggering, yet all these microbes can be grouped into five major types: Viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, and Protists. Let's look at each one in more detail.

Who are the three fathers of microbiology? ›

Louis Pasteur is known as the “father of microbiology,” and together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology.

What were the 3 main theories that were developed during the early years of microbiology? ›

With the development of microbiology, came 4 important concepts:
  • discovery of microorganisms - refutes spontaneous generation.
  • pure culture concept.
  • germ theory of disease.
  • role in chemical transformations.

Who is the most famous microbiologist? ›

Three Recognizable Microbiologists
  • Antonie van Leeuwenhoek The Father of Microbiology.
  • Louis Pasteur And The Germ Theory.
  • Robert Koch The Father of Medical.
8 Mar 2021

Who is called Mother of microbiology? ›

Fanny Hesse (born Angelina Fanny Eilshemius, June 22, 1850 – December 1, 1934) is best known for her work in microbiology alongside her husband, Walther Hesse.

Who is the most famous marine biologist? ›

1. Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)

Who is the grandfather of microbiology? ›

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), a cloth trader from Delft, is the founding father of microbiology. He used home-made microscopes to discover the invisible world of micro-organisms.
...
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.
NameAntoni van Leeuwenhoek
Dates1632-1723
Achievementdiscovered the micro-world
1 more row

What is the third golden age of microbiology? ›

The Third Golden Age of Microbiology

BIOTECHNOLOGY. Advances in the fields of microbiology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering have revolutionized the medical field.

Who won the Nobel Prize in microbiology? ›

Paul Ehrlich. Elie Metchnikoff. Nobel Prizes and Nobel Committees (1901, 1905 and 1908) In Defence of the Nobel Prize.
...
Pioneers of Microbiology and the Nobel Prize.
Alfred Nobel (1833–1896)Emil von Behring (1854–1917)
Alphonse Laveran (1845–1922)Louis Pasteur (1822–1895)
1 more row

What are the 6 in microbiology? ›

So, to deal with these challenges microbiologists have developed several procedures for investigating and characterizing microbes. These techniques are called the six “I's”: inoculation, incubation, isolation, inspection, information gathering, and identification.

What are the six major categories of microbiology? ›

The major groups of microorganisms—namely bacteria, archaea, fungi (yeasts and molds), algae, protozoa, and viruses—are summarized below. Links to the more detailed articles on each of the major groups are provided.

Who started the golden age of microbiology? ›

3. The development of microbiology  Golden age of microbiology started with the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch . . The major achievements in the golden age of microbiology :  A number of disease causing microbes were discovered.

Who is the medical father of microbiology? ›

Robert Koch (1843-1910): father of microbiology and Nobel laureate.

Who is the founder of modern microbiology? ›

[Robert Koch, founder of modern microbiology]

What are the golden ages of microbiology? ›

The proof of microorganisms as the real etiological agents of infectious diseases marks the zenith of the period between 1850 and 1915 known as the Golden Age of Microbiology.

What are the recent discoveries in microbiology? ›

  • Scientists Discover Compound Found in Trees Has Potential to Kill Drug-Resistant Bacteria.
  • The Shape of Coronavirus Affects Its Transmission, Finds Study.
  • Heterogeneous Development of Beta-Cell Populations in Diabetes-Resistant and -Susceptible Mice.
  • New Algorithm Uncovers the Secrets of Cell Factories.

What are the major discoveries of the golden age of microbiology? ›

Between Pasteur and Koch, the Golden Age of Microbiology achieved its greatest discoveries. Pathogens were identified, vaccines created, methodologies perfected, and foundations established that support modern research today.

What were the 3 main theories that were developed during the early years of microbiology? ›

With the development of microbiology, came 4 important concepts:
  • discovery of microorganisms - refutes spontaneous generation.
  • pure culture concept.
  • germ theory of disease.
  • role in chemical transformations.

Who are the three fathers of microbiology? ›

Louis Pasteur is known as the “father of microbiology,” and together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology.

Who is the father of old microbiology? ›

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), a cloth trader from Delft, is the founding father of microbiology. He used home-made microscopes to discover the invisible world of micro-organisms. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), a cloth trader from Delft, is the founding father of microbiology.

What is the third golden age of microbiology? ›

The Third Golden Age of Microbiology

BIOTECHNOLOGY. Advances in the fields of microbiology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering have revolutionized the medical field.

Who is the king of microbiology? ›

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Known forThe first acknowledged microscopist and microbiologist in history Microscopic discovery of microorganisms (animalcule)
Scientific career
FieldsMicroscopy Microbiology
InfluencesRobert Hooke Regnier de Graaf
8 more rows

What are the 6 in microbiology? ›

So, to deal with these challenges microbiologists have developed several procedures for investigating and characterizing microbes. These techniques are called the six “I's”: inoculation, incubation, isolation, inspection, information gathering, and identification.

Who won the Nobel Prize in microbiology? ›

Paul Ehrlich. Elie Metchnikoff. Nobel Prizes and Nobel Committees (1901, 1905 and 1908) In Defence of the Nobel Prize.
...
Pioneers of Microbiology and the Nobel Prize.
Alfred Nobel (1833–1896)Emil von Behring (1854–1917)
Alphonse Laveran (1845–1922)Louis Pasteur (1822–1895)
1 more row

Who is the first founder of microbiology? ›

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is considered a father of microbiology as he observed and experimented with microscopic organisms in the 1670s, using simple microscopes of his own design. Scientific microbiology developed in the 19th century through the work of Louis Pasteur and in medical microbiology Robert Koch.

Who is the medical father of microbiology? ›

Robert Koch (1843-1910): father of microbiology and Nobel laureate.

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