Microbial spoilage of Beverages and their preservation (2022)

Introduction

Beverages can be defined as any drinkable liquid other than water. Commercially, there are mainly four types of beverage (hot drinks, milk drinks, soft drinks, and alcoholic drinks). However, beverages are classified into two groups: alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Most of the beverages contain water, nutritive sweeteners, flavoring, coloring agents, acidification agents, emulsifying agents, etc. which influences the population of microbial growth in beverages. In beverage industries, it is always a challenge to meet the needs of consumers, the demand for safe and healthier products. Therefore, it is important to maintain all the required qualities to give consumer satisfaction.

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Microbial spoilage of Beverages and their preservation (1)

Classification of Beverages

Microbial spoilage of Beverages and their preservation (2)

Figure- Classification of Beverages.

Table of Contents

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A. Non-alcoholic beverages

The non-alcoholic beverages containing water, sweeteners, acids, flavoring, coloring and emulsifying agents, and preservatives. In general, they can be classified in several ways.

  • Refreshing: plain water, carbonated beverages, iced tea, and buttermilk with salt and lime juice
  • Nourishing: milk – pasteurized, skimmed, evaporated, dried, malted, buttermilk, milkshakes, coffee, lemonade, etc.
  • Stimulating: coffee, tea, or chocolate beverage
  • Soothing: warm milk or hot tea
  • Appetizing: soups, fruit juice, etc.

It can be divided into carbonated and non-carbonated beverages. Non-carbonated beverages don’t contain carbon dioxide and sparkling taste. They include fruit punch, fruit drinks, ice tea, coffee, and sports drinks. Carbonated beverages contain added carbon dioxide that gives an effervescent taste to the beverages. They include coke, soda, soft drinks, etc.

Contamination source of non-alcoholic beverages

  • During the production process
  • Factory environment
  • Raw materials (fruits, vegetables, sugars)
  • Flavorings, water, and other chemicals used
  • Process machinery and filling lines in industries
  • Microbiological state of the equipment
  • Poor hygienic handling
  • Packaging materials such as cans and bottles
  • Storage conditions

Spoilage of non-alcoholic beverages

  • Beverages have high water activity and often rich in vitamins and minerals so they are highly susceptible to microbial spoilage.
  • The microorganisms that can resist low pH and high carbonation can grow on non-alcoholic beverages.
  • Yeasts are considered to be the primary spoilage microbes. Various spoilage-causing yeasts that are found in non-alcoholic beverages include Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Saccharomyces, Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, and Pichia. Candida davenportii, C. parapsilosis, or Debaryomyces spp. Rhodotorula, Sporidiobolus, Dekkera bruxellensis, and Sporobolomyces and the black genus Aureobasidium.
  • Molds grow as white, delicate, fluffy, cottony masses suspended in soſt drinks. Mold spores cannot grow in carbonated beverages but can survive. The various spoilage-causing mold that is found in non-alcoholic beverages includes Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus tamarii, Aspergillus flavus, Byssochlamys nivea, Byssochlamys fulva, Paecilomyces variotii, Neosartorya fischeri, Eupenicillium brefeldianum, Phialophora mustea, Talaromyces flavus, Talaromyces trachyspermus, and Thermoascus aurantiacum. Others include Penicillium notatum, Penicillium roquefortii , Rhizopus, Cladosporium, and Fusarium, and Cladosporium spp
  • Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in non-alcoholic beverages containing fruit juices includes Lactobacillus paracasei, L. Brevis, L. buchneri, L. Plantarum, L. perolens, and also Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Weissella
  • Other various bacteria found in non-alcoholic beverages are Acetobacter, Alicyclobacillus, Bacillus, Clostridium, Gluconobacter, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Saccharobacter, Zymobacter and Zymomonas.
  • Pathogenic organisms Listeria monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica E. coli and Salmonella.

The kind of defects caused by microorganismson non-alcoholic beverages are

GroupGenera/SpeciesVisual defectsOdors
YeastsAureobasidium pullulans

Haze, clouds, surface films, swollen packages, tainting, particulates, surface films

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Yeasty, aldehyde off-flavor, vinegar, sweet pineapple note, sweet butter, petroleum-like odor

Candida davenportii, C. parapsilosis, C.tropicalis, C. solani
Cryptococcus albidus, C. laurentii
Debaryomyces hansenii, D. etchellsii, D. polymorphus
Kluyveromyces lactis, K.marxianus;
Pichia anomala, P. jadinii, P.membranifaciens, P. subpelliculosa;
Rhodotorula glutinis
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S.bayanus, S.exiguous
Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Z. bisporus, Z. lentus, Z. rouxii
MoldAspergillus niger, A. penicillioides, A. versicolor; Byssochlamys

Mycelial mats, discoloration swollen packages

Musty, stale

Cladosporium sphaerospermum
Fusarium oxysporum
Mucor circinelloides, M.racemosus;
Penicillium glabrum
Rhizopus stolonifer
BacteriaLAB – Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. brevis, L. buchneri, L. paracasei, L. perolens, L. plantarum; Leuconostoc mesenteroides; Weissella confusaLoss of carbon dioxide, ropiness, turbidityCheesy notes, sour, green apple
AAB – Acetobacter suboxydans; Gluconobacter oxydans; Gluconacetobacter sacchari; Asaia lannensis, A. bogorensisHaze, ropiness, surface films, swollen packagesSour, vinegar,

Antiseptic off-flavor

ACB – Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, A. acidophilus, A. acidocaldarius, A. cycloheptanicus, A. hesperidium, A. herbarius, A. pomorumDifficult to detectAntiseptic and smoky taints

B. Alcoholic beverages

  • Alcoholic beverages include a variety of products from ethnic fermented beverages, alcoholic drinks, and distilled alcohol that are available worldwide, including beer, fruit wine, refined traditional rice wine, etc.
  • Alcoholic beverages are produced by the fermentation of sugars or starches in fruits or grains by naturally occurring microorganisms, or by the addition of starter cultures that biochemically change the raw materials into alcohol.
  • Alcoholic beverages are generally recognized as microbiologically safe due to their high ethanol content (>4%) and low pH (<4.5).
  • However, distilled products are highly stable than non-distilled products.

Contamination source of alcoholic beverages

  • the raw materials containing sugars and starches
  • the manufacturing processes
  • the fermentation temperature (generally 18 to 35°C for 2 to 14 days) is favorable for bacterial growth (both for the starter cultures and for spoilage and pathogenic bacteria)
  • Flavorings, water, and other chemicals used
  • Equipment (crushers, presses, tanks, pipes, pumps, filtration units, etc)
  • microbiological state of the equipment
  • poor hygienic handling
  • Packaging materials such as cans and bottles
  • Storage conditions

Spoilage of alcoholic beverages

1. Wine

  • Wine is a fermented beverage made by the alcoholic fermentation of grape or grape juice by the use of yeast with a subsequent aging process.
  • Fruits other than grapes like apples, plums, peaches, pears, berries, strawberries, cherries, apricots, bananas, pineapples, cashew nuts, pomegranates, lemons, tangerines, oranges, dates, figs, etc., are also utilized for the production of wines.
  • In wines, the main spoilage microorganisms are yeasts of the genera Dekkera/ Brettanomyces, Candida, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora/Kloeckera, Pichia, Saccharomyces, and Zygosaccharomyces.
  • The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Pediococcus; and the acetic acid bacterial genera Acetobacter and Gluconobacter.
  • The mold which is present in raw materials is usually eliminated during the fermentation process due to alcohol production.

The kind of defects caused by microorganismson wine are

GroupGenera/speciesDefects
YeastPichia, Hanseniaspora, Hansenula, Metschnikowia, Dekkera, CandidaEster and aldehyde taints, increased volatile acidity
Candida, PichiaFormation of surface slime
Brettanomyces intermediusMousy, horsy taint, produces high levels of acetic acid
Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces bailiiRefermentation in the bottle
Saccharomyces ludwigii, Pichia membranafaciensOxidized taint from acetaldehyde, flocculent masses settle as chunks and form a sliminess
SchizosaccharomycesDeactivation of wine
Lactic acid bacteriaLactobacillus brevisProduces ethyl carbamate precursors, acidification of wine by the production of lactic and acetic acids, mannitol formation, mousy taints
Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus hilgardiiMousy taints, bitterness due to glycerol metabolism
Lactobacillus kunkeeiProduction of excess acetic acid
Lactobacillus trichodesFlocculent growth
Leuconostoc mesenteroidesRopiness formation, bitterness due to glycerol metabolism
Oenococcus oeniProduces histamine, buttery flavor due to increase in diacetyl level
Pediococcus parvulusAcrolein formation from glycerol causes bitterness
Pediococcus pentosaceusIncrease in viscosity due to production of polysaccharides
Acetic acid bacteriaAcetobacter aceti Acetobacter pasteurianus, Gluconobacter oxydansOxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetic acid; production of ethyl acetate; production of acetoin from lactic acid; metabolism of glycerol to dihydroxyacetone; ropiness
Endo spore-forming bacteriaBacillus spp

Clostridium spp

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An increase in acidity (butyric acid), forms sediment

2. Beer

  • Beer is a brewed beverage consisting of malt, hop, water, and yeast, which is drunk worldwide.
  • It is hard to spoil due to the presence of ethanol (0.5–10% w/w), hop bitter, the high content of carbon dioxide, the low pH (3.8–4.7), and the presence of only traces of nutritive substances such as glucose, maltose, and maltotriose.
  • The spoilage-causing yeast includes different genera such as Saccharomyces, Brettanomyces, Candida, Debaryomyces filobasidium, Hanseniaspora, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces
  • Spoilage organisms are mainly lactic acid bacteria, mostly the genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, or they are obligate anaerobes of the species Pectinatus and Megasphaera.
  • Mold species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, and Fusarium are found in spoilage beer.

The main defects caused by various spoilage-causing microorganisms are

  • Loss of colloidal stability
  • Discoloration
  • Off-texture
  • Ropiness
  • Abnormal attenuation rates
  • Turbidity
  • Taste defects
  • Fermentation defect
  • Defects in appearance
  • Aroma defects

The defects caused by various microorganisms on beer are:

GroupSpecies/GeneraDefects
YeastsBrettanomyces, Candida, and Debaryomyces filobasidium, Hanseniaspora, Kluyveromyces, Pichia, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces.formation of phenolic, acidic, fatty acid, and estery off-flavors, as well as hazes and turbidity
Wild yeastsSulfur taints, bad eggs, and drains like off-flavor
MoldAlternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Fusariumoff-flavors ranged from burnt molasses to unclean, winey, and harsh
Aspergillus fumigatusroughness and a stale flavor
LactobacillusL. lindneri, L. brevis, L. buchneri, L. casei, L. coryneformis, L. curvatus, L. paracollinoides , L. plantarum,Sourness and creaminess, acid production
PediococciP. damnosus, P. inopinatus,produce optically inactive lactic acid from carbohydrates, produce acidity, cloudiness, and buttery aroma of diacetyl in
Gram-positive bacteriaKocuria kristinaeproducing a fruity atypical aroma
Gram-negative BacteriaPectinatus cerevisiiphilus,Produce turbidity, propionic acid production, acetic acid and sulfur compound production, rotten eggs smell
Megashaera cerevisiae, M. paucivorans, M. sueciensisUnpleasant smell.
Zymomonas anaerobiaTurbidity and off-odors

3. Cider

  • Cider is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of apple juice.
  • Brettanomyces spp. and Acetobacter xylinum, is found spoiling cider.
  • S. ludwigii is an indigenous contaminant of cider making.

The main defects caused by various spoilage-causing microorganisms are:

  • Mousiness
  • Indole taint
  • Sulfur and rotten-egg taints
  • Discoloration
  • Hazes and deposits

Preservation of Beverages

Different types of methods are applied to prevent the beverages from microbial spoilage and maintaining the nutritional and sensory quality of beverages. For the prevention of beverages spoilage caused by microbes, the methods used include thermal treatment, non-thermal treatments, use of chemical preservatives, natural preservatives, and combinations of techniques.

1. Pasteurization

  • Pasteurization is a method of food preservation that involves the application of heat, usually below 100° at a certain time.
  • Low-temperature long-time and high-temperature short-time treatments are the most commonly used techniques for
  • Flash-pasteurization is applied to sensitive products when filling is aseptic and is usually used in carbonated drinks.
  • In-pack pasteurization is applied to high acidic beverages with a high risk of spoilage.
  • Hot filling is applied in beverages to lower the risk of spoilage and is often used in fruit juice drinks.
  • Low-acid beverages require harsher preservative methods and are usually Ultra-high temperature pasteurization is applied.

Some examples of pasteurization applied in beverages based on pH are:

Thermal processingTemperatureTime
Flash pasteurization, pH <4.675-85 °C1-4 min
90-96 °C30-90sec
Hot-filling, pH<4.683-88 °C0.5-1.5 min
92-95 °C10-15sec
Tunnel pasteurization, pH <4.672-80 °C5-20 min
High-temperature short-time treatment, pH >4.6105-115 °C0.5-4.2 min
Ultra high-temperature treatment, pH>4.6130-150 °C1-9 sec

2. High process processing

  • It is a non-thermal pasteurization process in which liquid is subjected to high pressure in the region of 3300 – 600 MPa for about 10 minutes.
  • It is applied in acidic juice and beverage products such as orange juice because pressure-tolerant spores are unable to survive in environments with low pH levels. For example
    • For apple juices, 545 Mpa is applied for 1 min
    • For orange juices, 241-550 MPa is applied for 3-5 min
    • For blueberry juices, 400-600 MPa is applied for 15 min
  • For alcoholic beverages, the juice extracted from fruits is treated with this treatment before fermentation to avoid unwanted microbial growth.
  • However, it can also be applied after fermentation to avoid further growth of yeasts used for fermentation.
  • During the HPP process, the beverages are sealed into their appropriate containers and placed in a stainless steel pressure chamber that contains water.
  • During this process, the non-covalent bonds in microbes are disrupted without affecting the organoleptic properties of the beverages.

3. Hydrodynamic cavitation

  • When the liquid is applied to this method, bubbles are formed in a fluid due to induced pressure fluctuation.
  • Hydrodynamic cavitation is promising for inactivating S. cerevisiae in apple juice.
  • LAB and Z. bailii were found to be eliminated when hydrodynamic cavitation was used with mild temperature treatments.

4. Pulsed electric field (PEF)

  • The pulsed electric field is one of the non-thermal food preservation technologies in which food is subjected to short pulses (1-100 µs) of high electric fields with a duration of nano to milliseconds and intensity of 10 – 80 kV/cm to foods placed between two electrodes.
  • PEF disrupts the microbial cell membrane, killing the microbes by lysis
  • In studies, it has shown that pathogen inactivation in fruit juices when PEF was combined with antimicrobials such as citric acid, cinnamon, and bark oil.
  • Lb. brevis and Z. bailii were more sensitive to PEF in alcoholic beverages.

5. Irradiation

The treatment involves exposure of beverages to X-rays, electron beams, and gamma-rays which preserve the beverages, without affecting their physical appearance. Three types of approved techniques of beverage irradiation include :

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  1. Gamma-rays are emitted from radioactive forms of the elements cobalt and cesium (Cesium 137 and Cobalt 60)
  2. X-rays, generated must be at or below an energy level of 5 MeV.
  3. Electron beam (or e-beam), generated must be at or below an energy level of 10 MeV.

6. Membrane filtration

  • Membrane filtration is a low-temperature process that uses a porous membrane with various pore sizes or a filtration to separate undesirable particles (based on their size, shape, or charge) from the fluid to retain the natural color, texture, and flavor of the beverage.
  • Ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) are commonly used membrane filtration techniques.
  • Thus membrane filtration techniques are generally used for clarification of fruit juices.
  • In beverages, it is applied in apple juice clarification, fruit juice, wine, and beer clarification and concentration.

7. Preservatives

Preservatives are substances that are capable of inhibiting or retarding the growth of microorganisms.Such preservatives used in food can be divided into three types:

  1. Natural preservatives
  2. Bio preservatives
  3. Chemical preservatives

Preservatives that are used beverages are:

ProductPreservative usedEffective against
Orange juiceNisin with PEF(80 kV/cm, 44ºC)Natural flora
CitralL.monocytohenes
LysozymeSalmonella typhimurium
LactoperoxidaseE.coli, Shigella spp
Black pepper essential oilMesophilic bacteria and fungi
Eugenol nanoemulsionMesophilic
Watermelon juiceClove essential oilMesophilic
Clove essential oil
Lemon juiceLemon essential oilA.acidoterrestris spores
Pineapple juiceLemongrass essential oilE.coli, L.monocytogenes, S. enteritidis
Apple juiceCinnamon powder and essential oilListeria monocytogenes
LactoperoxidaseE.coli,Shigella spp
ChitosanYeast and molds
Betel leaf essential oilMesophilic bacteria and fungi
Nisin combined with carvacrol or citric acidC.sakazakii and E.coli
Clove oil, lime oil, oregano oilE.coli
Carrot juiceCombination of carvacrol and p-cymeneV.cholera
Tomato juicethymolC.lusitaniae
Mixed fruit juice(apple and orange)Combination of mint and lemongrass essential oil or eucalyptus essential oil with thermal treatment(70°C or 80 °C for 30-90 sec)
Fresh-made apple juice and apple cidersEnterocinB.licheniformis
Apple ciderSulfitesGram-negative bacteria
Enterocin with heat(95°C)B.licheniformis
Nisin or cinnamon with PEF(90kV/cm, 20 µs, 42ºC)E.coli
Unpasteurized apple juicechitosanE.coli and S.typhimurium
WineChitosan and SO2Acetic acid bacteria
Sorbic acidPrevent yeast fermentation
SulfitesAcetobacter spp
BeerChitosanLactic acid bacteria and yeast
Benzoic acidYeast and bacterial
Sorbic acidPrevent yeast fermentation

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FAQs

What is beverage spoilage? ›

Beverages have high water activity and often rich in vitamins and minerals so they are highly susceptible to microbial spoilage. The microorganisms that can resist low pH and high carbonation can grow on non-alcoholic beverages. Yeasts are considered to be the primary spoilage microbes.

What is microbial spoilage and its types? ›

MICROBIAL SPOILAGE: This refers to damage to food, pharmaceutical products that is caused by micro organisms (bacteria, moulds and yeasts). Micro organisms can grow in almost all kinds of food products. As micro-organisms occur everywhere around us, there is always a risk of microbial spoilage.

What is an example of microbial food spoilage? ›

Microbial spoilage by moulds and yeasts includes souring of milk, growth of mould on bread and rotting of fruit and vegetables. These organisms are rarely harmful to humans, but bacterial contamination is often more dangerous because the food does not always look bad, even if it is severely infected.

What causes microbial spoilage? ›

Microbiological food spoilage is caused by the growth of microorganisms which produce enzymes that lead to objectionable by-products in the food. Chemical food spoilage occurs when different components in the food react with each other or with some added component which alter the food's sensory characteristics.

What is microbial spoilage? ›

Microbial Spoilage include the contamination of Pharmaceutical products with the microbes which lead to spoilage of the product affecting Drug safety and quality, and is not intended for use. Shortly Microbial Spoilage is defined as deterioration of pharmaceutical products by the contaminant microbe.

How can microbes be useful in production of beverages? ›

1. Microbes can be grown in fermentors to make beverages like rum, beer, whisky etc., at industrial scale. 2. Low alcoholic content beverages can be prepared by the fermentation of starch products, while high alcoholic content beverages can be produced by the distillation of fermented malted barley, molasses etc.

What are the factors affecting spoilage? ›

Factors that affect food spoilage include:
  • Microorganisms.
  • Enzymes.
  • Air.
  • Light.
  • Insects, Rodents, Parasites and Other Creatures.
  • Physical Damage.
  • Temperature.
  • Time.

What are the sources of contamination for microbial spoilage? ›

Food is contaminated with pathogenic micro-organisms or various poisonous agents. Food is contaminated with pathogenic micro-organisms or various poisonous agents.

Which of the following is a method of preservation of culture? ›

Explanation: Lyophilization is the method that is based on freezing of culture followed by drying under vacuum. This is known as sublimation. It is useful for the storage or preservation of culture for more about 25 years.

What are the types of spoilage? ›

Biological spoilage - The microbial metabolism of items leads to chemical degradation, a way of contaminating items with contaminants. Microbial Toxins: Endotoxins generated by Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli. Microbial Metabolites: A variety of organic acids and amines.

Why is it important to prevent spoilage? ›

If food items are kept for a long period of time and not stored properly, they get spoil such food items are bad for health. When food items kept for a long time gets spoil as germs start growing on it. Once the food is spoiled, it cannot be eaten and has to be thrown away.

What are the three major factors affecting microbial spoilage? ›

Factors that can cause food to spoil include microbial, chemical and physical reactions which affect the taste, smell and appearance of a product.

What is food preservation methods? ›

Among the oldest methods of preservation are drying, refrigeration, and fermentation. Modern methods include canning, pasteurization, freezing, irradiation, and the addition of chemicals. Advances in packaging materials have played an important role in modern food preservation.

How do you control and prevent food spoilage? ›

The steps you can take to prevent food spoilage include:

Refrigerating meats and dairy products for the proper amount of time and at the right temperature. Organizing refrigerators and pantries by their expiration date. Planning and purchase carefully to avoid over-buying. Storing all food items in a clean, dry ...

Why is food preservation important? ›

The primary objective of food preservation is to prevent food spoilage until it can be consumed. Gardens often produce too much food at one time—more than can be eaten before spoilage sets in. Preserving food also offers the opportunity to have a wide variety of foods year-round.

How microbial spoilage can be controlled in food industry? ›

Microbial spoilage

The growth of most microorganisms can be prevented or lingered by adjusting storage temperature, reducing water activity, lowering pH, using preservatives, and using proper packaging [28].

Which microbes are used to make alcoholic beverages? ›

Yeasts are the main fermentor and alcohol producer in the production of wine, beer and other alcohol drinks. The main yeast species used is Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It ferments the sugars, coming from different sources, e.g., grapes for wine, barley for beer, to alcohol and carbon dioxide.

What is the role of microorganisms in food and beverage industry give some examples? ›

Microorganisms are essential for the production of foods such as cheese, yogurt, bread, beer, wine and other fermented foods. Fermentation is one of the methods to preserve food and alter its quality. Yeast, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used to leaven bread, brew beer and make wine.

Which of the following microbes is used to make alcoholic beverages? ›

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also known as brewer's yeast, is used for fermenting malted cereals and fruit juices to produce ethanol (ethyl alcohol). Microbes (yeasts in particular) have been used for the production of beverages, such as wine, beer, whisky, brandy and rum.

What are the types of microbial contamination? ›

Final CCL 4 Microbial Contaminants
Microbial Contaminant NameType
CalicivirusesVirus (includes Norovirus)
Campylobacter jejuniBacteria
EnterovirusViruses including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses and echoviruses
Escherichia coli (0157)Bacteria
8 more rows
Nov 5, 2021

What is spoilage and type of spoilage? ›

Spoilage is used to refer most commonly to raw materials whose lifespan is very short. In accounting, spoilage is classified into two types – normal spoilage and abnormal spoilage. To learn how to build the three fundamental financial statements check out our Accounting Fundamentals Course.

Who is responsible for spoilage of food? ›

Bacteria. Bacteria are responsible for some of the spoilage of food. When bacteria breaks down the food, acids and other waste products are generated in the process. While the bacteria itself may or may not be harmful, the waste products may be unpleasant to taste or may even be harmful to one's health.

Which of the yeast causes spoilage in soft drinks? ›

A new microbe that causes spoilage in soft drinks, beverages and artificially flavored drinks is identified as Candida davenportii, which rarely causes spoilage and falls in group two spoilage microbe.

Can soda grow bacteria? ›

Acetic acid bacteria and molds (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, and Fusarium) can grow only when dissolved oxygen is present as is in the case of noncarbonated soft drinks.

Who discovered microorganisms? ›

The existence of microscopic organisms was discovered during the period 1665-83 by two Fellows of The Royal Society, Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.

Videos

1. Lecture 27 Microbiology of soft drinks and fruit juices Part 1
(ITLS ACADEMY)
2. Introduction to food spoilage microorganisms
(Ch-10 Applied Sc, Allied Physical and Chemical sc)
3. Microbial Spoilage of Meat
(Damia Bahri)
4. Thermal Processing of Food for Food Safety and Preservation
(International Food Safety & Quality Network)
5. Food Microbiology: Wine Spoilage
(Taylor Brydon)
6. Biopreservation & Chemical preservation
(Ch-10 Applied Sc, Allied Physical and Chemical sc)

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