Filtration - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics (2022)

Filtration is the most practical and economical solution to the problem of removing dust and organisms from enclosed spaces.

From: Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, 1999

Related terms:

  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Protein
  • Urine
  • Podocyte
  • Ultrafiltration
  • Glomerulus
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Pathophysiology of Proteinuria

Alan S.L. Yu MB, BChir, in Brenner and Rector's The Kidney, 2020

Epithelial Filtration Slits

A large amount of experimental and clinical research has been generated in the past few decades on the molecular and structural composition of the epithelial junctional complex, known as filtration slits. The characterization of several molecular components of this structure33 has allowed detailed definition of the proteins that compose the filtration slits (seeFig. 30.1); however, detailed information on the ultrastructure of this intracellular junction is still under investigation.5 The original observations by Rodewald and Karnowsky34 suggested a zipper-like structure of the epithelial filtration slit, with rectangular openings of 4 by 14 nm. These dimensions are in contrast with the observation that a limited amount of albumin can traverse the filtration barrier in physiologic conditions,1 because the mean molecular radius of albumin is 3.6 nm. Observations with high-resolution SEM and three-dimensional electron microscopy reconstruction35 suggest that the filtration slits are perforated by larger openings of the size of albumin, with more complex geometry. The morphology of the filtration slit has been further imaged with high-resolution SEM, providing evidence of a new ultrastructure composed of circular pores of different sizes with an average radius of 12 nm36,37 (Fig. 30.2). Despite the small size of filtration slit openings, a large amount of plasma water is filtered because of the high filtration slit length per unit surface area. As mentioned earlier, under physiologic conditions about 20% of peripheral capillary filtering surface is directly in communication with the Bowman space, and the epithelial slits are the last resistance encountered by water and filtered solutes.11 In the remaining portion of the glomerular membrane, water and solutes, after passing through the filtration slits, must traverse the SPS and the IPS before arriving in the Bowman capsule.11

It should also be considered that the flow of ultrafiltrate over the cell surface directly causes shear stress (SS) on the podocyte membrane associated with the filtration slit as well as to cell body. In animal models of solitary kidney where filtrate flow is increased, SS on the podocyte surface increases 1.5- to 2-fold.38 These forces are highest within the central portion of the filtration slit diaphragm. The forces acting parallel to the GBM are balanced by the mechanical resistance produced by the slit diaphragm complex, opposing foot processes, preventing widening of the slit.39 On the other side, SS acting perpendicular to the GBM plane, tends to detach the foot process from the GBM. However, these shear forces are balanced by the tight junctions between podocyte cell membrane and GBM proteins that allow transmission of this mechanical load into the cytoskeleton apparatus. These complex mechanical challenges present in physiologic conditions within the podocyte, induced by glomerular ultrafiltrate flow, make mechanotransduction an important function of podocytes. In addition, SS acting on the podocyte membrane adjacent to the filtration slit, as well as to the entire cell body, seems to play a central role in the process of podocyte damage that results in foot process effacement as well as in podocyte detachment from the GBM.39


A.S. Sant'Ana, in Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Edition), 2014


Filtration is a unit operation used to separate insoluble solids from liquids. The physical removal of microorganisms by filtration can be employed to recover the solid discontinuous phase (the cells) to produce, for example, concentrated starters, or to eliminate the continuous phase of microbial particles (air filtration, liquid product cold sterilization). Filtration has been used in several processes of the food industry, such as during sugar extraction, dewatering of starch, separation of gluten suspensions, refining of edible oils, and clarification of juices and beverages. This chapter discusses the principles, factors affecting filtration performance, and materials and systems for food uses as well as the main applications in food industry.

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(Video) WSO Water Treatment Grade 1: Filtration and Filtration Processes, Ch. 10

Interpretation of Electrolyte and Acid-Base Parameters in Blood and Urine

Alan S.L. Yu MB, BChir, in Brenner and Rector's The Kidney, 2020

Distal Delivery of Filtrate

The volume of distal delivery of filtrate is the volume of glomerular filtration minus the volume of filtrate that is reabsorbed in the nephron segments prior to the CCD. There are data to suggest that AQP1 channels are not present in the luminal membranes of the DtLs of the superficial nephrons, which constitute 85% of the total number of nephrons.2 If that is the case, then the entire loop of Henle of most of the nephrons is impermeable to water. Hence, the volume of distal delivery of filtrate should be approximately equal to the volume of glomerular filtration minus the volume that is reabsorbed by PT.

It was thought that about 66% of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is reabsorbed along the entire PT. This was based on the measured ratio of the concentration of inulin in fluid samples obtained from the lumen of the PT (TF) and its concentration in simultaneous plasma (P) samples—(TF/P)inulin—in micropuncture studies in rats. Because inulin is freely filtered at the glomerulus and is not reabsorbed or secreted in the PT, a (TF/P)inulin value of around 3 has suggested that approximately 66% of the filtrate is reabsorbed in the PT. However, these micropuncture measurements underestimate the volume of fluid that is actually reabsorbed in the PT because these measurements were made at the last accessible portion of the PT at the surface of the renal cortex, and hence did not take into account that additional volume may be reabsorbed in the deeper part of the PT, including its pars recta portion.

If the entire loop of Henle of most nephrons can be assumed to lack AQP1 and thereby be largely impermeable to water, the volume of filtrate that enters the loop of Henle can be deduced from the minimum value for the (TF/P)inulin obtained using the micropuncture technique from the early distal convoluted tubule (DCT), which has been done in rats. Because this value is around 6, a reasonable estimate of the proportion of filtrate that is reabsorbed in the rat PTs is close to five-sixths (83%). This value is close to the estimate of fractional reabsorption in the PT obtained with measurement of lithium clearance, which is thought to be a marker for fractional reabsorption in PT in human subjects.

If these findings can be extrapolated to humans with GFR values of 180 L/day, only about 30 L of filtrate/day (180 ÷ 6) would be delivered to the early DCT if all nephrons were superficial nephrons. This value of the volume of filtrate delivered to the DCT needs to be adjusted downward because juxtamedullary nephrons have AQP1 along their DtLs and, hence, are permeable to water. If these nephrons constitute 15% of the total number of nephrons and therefore receive 27 L of glomerular filtrate/day (15% of 180 L/day), and if five-sixths of the glomerular filtrate of these nephrons is reabsorbed along their PTs, around 4.5 L/ day reach their DtLs. Because the interstitial osmolality rises threefold (from 300 to 900 mOsmol/kg H2O) in the outer medulla, two-thirds, or 3 L of the 4.5 L/day, are reabsorbed in the DtLs of these nephrons. Therefore, the volume of filtrate delivered to DCTs is likely to be around 27 L/day (around 30 L/day exit the PTs minus around 3 L/day that are reabsorbed in DtLs of the juxtamedullary nephrons).

The Biomanufacturing of Biotechnology Products

John Conner MS, ... Chris Allen MS, in Biotechnology Entrepreneurship (Second Edition), 2020

Tangential Flow Filtration

TFF is a technique widely adopted in downstream processing and is similar in principle to dialysis. TFF is used to remove the buffer surrounding the macromolecule product and add another buffer to the product that is more suitable for the next process step. The pores in a tangential flow filter are small enough that the DP does not pass through—it moves parallel to the filter surface. Impurities, salts, and water pass through the filter and are discarded. TFF can be utilized as a preparative step between chromatography steps or to formulate the product of interest with the optimal salts and excipients. The exact formulation delivered by a TFF system varies greatly from product-to-product. Salts, amino acids, sugars, and surfactants are common additives (see Fig. 31.28A and B).

Filtration - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics (1)

Figure 31.28. (A) Tangential flow filtration model. The feed stream containing the product molecule, travels in parallel to the filter surface. Only impurities such as salts and smaller molecules pass through the filter. (B) An example of a production-scale tangential flow filtration system. The stainless steel plates on the right are used to hold the tangential flow filters (held by the technician) in place.

(A) Spectrum Labs. <> [accessed March 16, 2019]. (B) Sartorius. <> [accessed March 16, 2019].

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(Video) Donaldson Coolant Filtration Overview

Renal Pathophysiology and Treatment for Perioperative Ischemia and Nephrotoxic Injury

Michael A. Gropper MD, PhD, in Miller's Anesthesia, 2020

New Filtration-Based Markers of Renal Dysfunction

Of the most novel filtration-based markers of renal dysfunction, the most advanced is cystatin C, a member of the cystatin superfamily of cysteine-proteinase inhibitors that is produced by all nucleated cells at a constant rate. Cystatin C has been clinically available for longer than 15 years and can be rapidly determined. Similar to creatinine, cystatin C accumulates in the circulation with renal impairment and can be used as a marker of glomerular filtration. Serum cystatin C has theoretical advantages over creatinine, particularly as an indicator of mild chronic kidney disease and its sequelae.38 Several GFR estimating equations have been proposed, based on cystatin C alone or cystatin C and creatinine for use in chronic kidney disease.39,40 Although these are commonly used in clinical research studies, in general these are not in widespread clinical use at present.

Although cystatin C outperformed creatinine in detecting AKI after cardiac surgery in some small studies,41 this sensitivity has not consistently been the case. Indeed, a large multicenter prospective observational study of AKI after cardiac surgery suggested that serum cystatin C was less, not more, sensitive for the detection of AKI. This study, conducted by the Translational Research Investigating Biomarker Endpoints in Acute Kidney Injury (TRIBE-AKI) Consortium, prospectively enrolled more than 1200 adults undergoing cardiac surgery and has rapidly advanced the field of novel biomarkers in this context. Of note, the subset of patients who had AKI by cystatin C and creatinine had more frequent risk of dialysis and death than those who had AKI by creatinine alone.42 Conditions such as malignancy, human immunodeficiency viral infection, or corticosteroidal or thyroid hormone therapy are associated with increased serum levels of cystatin C without changes in renal function. Other novel markers of filtration include β-trace protein and β-2-microglobulin; these markers may be novel markers of mortality in the general population, compared with creatinine-based eGFR.42 However, the additional utility of these markers in estimating GFR above and beyond creatinine and cystatin C is unknown.

Downstream Processing

Ghasem D. Najafpour, in Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, 2007

Example 2

Filtration of 300 ml of fermentation broth was carried out in a laboratory-sized filter with a pressure drop of 10 psi. The filtration took 20 min. Based on previous studies, the filter cake obtained from Penicillium chrysogenum was compressible with the exponent ‘s’ in the equation for calculation of filter area equal to 0.5.


What size of filter is required to carry out filtration of 1 m3 broth from a pilot plant in 20 hours and at a pressure drop of 20 psi?


What is the percentage increase in filter area if the pressure drop is reduced to 10 psi?

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D.N. Taulbee, A. Furst, in Encyclopedia of Analytical Science (Second Edition), 2005

(Video) Filtration 101 - Liquid Strainers & Gas Filtration


Filtration is a mechanical means of separating solids from a liquid suspension via a porous medium or screen that permits the liquid to pass while retaining the solids. Centrifugal filtration is driven by the pressure exerted by a liquid medium and is opposed by the combined resistance of the porous filter and filter cake.

Centrifugal filtration is a complex process that is dependent on a number of parameters including liquid viscosity, cake thickness, centrifugal force, screen area, and importantly, the size and packing characteristics of the particles themselves. This technique is generally not amenable to broad generalizations and is, therefore, best approached on a case by case basis.

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Extraction Techniques and Applications: Biological/Medical and Environmental/Forensics

G.S. Walker, in Comprehensive Sampling and Sample Preparation, 2012 Filtration

Filtration may be necessary in the early stages of sample preparation to separate materials that are either solids in liquids or the other way round.

Filtration is also vital in the final stages of sample preparation prior to injecting samples onto chromatographic columns that have intolerance to particles. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and IC are examples of columns that are susceptible to clogging or blocking and so samples require to be filtered to less than 0.45 microns prior to injection. Filtration can be done through a syringe fitted with an appropriate-sized filter5 by application of pressure to the plunger or by vacuum in a vacuum manifold of which many types are commercially available.6,7 Vacuum filtration is of course not suitable for the preparation of very volatile components owing to the loss of material.

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Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies in Combination with Other Extracorporeal Therapies

Matthew L. Paden, James D. Fortenberry, in Critical Care Nephrology (Second Edition), 2009

Coupled Plasma Filtration-Adsorption

CPFA is a nonselective extracorporeal method combining the benefits of adsorption with renal replacement therapy. In CPFA, blood is removed and passed through a filter for plasma separation, followed by passage through a cartridge that removes mediators by means of adsorption. Plasma returns to combine with the blood, which can subsequently be passed through a renal replacement hemofilter if needed. The specific adsorbent material used in the CPFA cartridge is biocompatible and effective at typical blood flow rates and binds multiple mediators of sepsis. A review of its development and chemistry is beyond the scope of this discussion but has been described elsewhere.51

(Video) Whole House Water Filter in Irvine - Quick Filtration System Overview

CPFA has been shown in vitro and in animal models of sepsis to be effective in reducing cytokine levels. In addition, CPFA was shown to reduce mortality in a rabbit model of endotoxin-mediated shock.52 In an early-phase human clinical study, Formica and associates53 examined the hemodynamic response to 10 CPFA treatments, each of 10 hours' duration, in a consecutive series of 10 mechanically ventilated patients in septic shock with multiorgan failure, vasopressor dependence, and various degrees of ARF. Statistically significant improvement in mean arterial pressures, systemic vascular resistance, and PaO2/FIO2 ratio was seen for both individual treatments and over the entire treatment course. The 28-day survival rate was 90%, compared with 60% APACHE II—predicted. A larger phase II controlled, randomized study of CPFA is ongoing and should provide useful information regarding this promising therapy.

In accordance with Ronco and Bellomo's “peak concentration hypothesis,”54 CPFA has traditionally been described using a nonselective adsorption cartridge with additional high-volume hemofiltration or hemodiafiltration if needed to reduce mediators to the normal physiological range. Similar nonspecific mediator reduction methods55,56 have been designed by combining plasma exchange, rather than adsorption, with renal replacement therapy, originally as a treatment for liver failure, but with a possible role in the management of septic shock.

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Theory of Extraction Techniques

D.A. Wells, in Comprehensive Sampling and Sample Preparation, 2012 On-Line Filtration

Filtration performed on-line within the context of LC can be accomplished on the basis of size exclusion with materials ranging from stainless steel frits to synthetic polymer membranes, each with varying porosity. Stainless steel frits (sometimes called filters), supplied within their own housing unit for use in-line with LC, are placed before an extraction column or the analytical separation column when no extraction column is used. Typically, the frits are either replaceable or can be regenerated. However, this type of frit/filter is usually intended for removal of very fine particles within the mobile phase and is not commonly used as the primary filter for removing macromolecules from biological fluids and other dirty matrices. One application is demonstrated that used a stainless steel filter as an in-line filtration step for the removal of ‘in suspension particles’ from a food extract; here, the screw caps at both ends of an extraction chamber contained a stainless steel filter, 2μm in thickness and 1/4 i.d.8

The traditional use of filtration for removing particulates that may otherwise create problems with the liquid chromatographic system is to use a size-exclusion filter having a particular molecular size cutoff specification (e.g., 0.20μm, 0.45μm and larger). These filters are made from a material which is comprised of a porous network of synthetic polymer, e.g., nylon, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), hydrophilic polypropylene, hydrophilic PVDF, and hydrophilic polyethersulfone. The use of these filters in differing diameters allows for their inclusion in a range of analytical processes.

As an example, a continuous filtration system as a component of pressurized hot water extraction was used for the extraction of N-methylcarbamates from different fruits and vegetables.8 A flow injection manifold coupled to the extractor allowed for the automation of the following steps: filtration, preconcentration, individual chromatographic separation, postcolumn derivatization, and fluorescence detection. The on-line filtration component (0.45-μm nylon filter, 29-mm diameter) was located in-line between the extractor and the preconcentration column. A range of filters from 14 to 29mm was tested; the important consideration with on-line filtration is that filters with low diameters give rise to higher system pressures; for this reason, 29mm was preferred in this assay. The location of the filtration device was in the loop of an auxiliary injection valve; therefore, it could be cleaned after use using distilled water that was pumped at a high flow rate in an opposite direction to the filtration. The filter was changed after five to seven extractions, depending on the sample matrix used.

A familiar application for filtration is in the off-line mode, in which a synthetic polymer size exclusion membrane is secured within a disposable unit that is attached to a syringe and processed manually. However, such filters, when molded and assembled in a suitable configuration, can be processed in an automated manner and then injected by an autosampler. In this mode, they can be adapted for on-line filtration since the procedure is totally automated and meets requirements for hands-off sample processing.

A representative example of such an automated single-use filtration device is the Mini-UniPrep™ syringeless filter (Whatman® Inc., Clifton, New Jersey, USA). Mini-UniPrep is a preassembled filtration device that contains a 0.4-ml chamber and a plunger. The plunger has a filtration membrane at one end and a pre-attached septum at the other end. The plunger is pressed through the sample in the outer chamber and positive pressure forces the filtrate into the reservoir of the plunger; air escapes through the vent hole and a locking ring is engaged. This device fits into any autosampler tray that accommodates 12×32-mm vials. Another example of a single-use filtration cartridge that is automatable with LC instrumentation is the product from MicroLiter Analytical Supplies, Inc.® (Suwanee, Georgia, USA) designed for the Instrument Top Sample Preparation (ITSP) system. As discussed further in Section, filtration can be performed using ITSP cartridges when the bottom of the cartridge contains a single membrane (e.g., 0.45μm or 0.20μm PTFE, nylon, hydrophilic polypropylene, hydrophilic PVDF, and/or hydrophilic polyethersulfone).

Industrial filtration systems using material such as hollow-fiber ultrafiltration modules are commonly associated with on-line filtration;9 however, the focus of this chapter is on analytical procedures, not the industrial filtration processes. In a more general sense, filtration can be accomplished by use of an extraction column (e.g., monolithic column) of large particle size, where the analytes are adsorbed to the particle chemistry and larger size materials pass through to waste;10 Section 2.28.3 describes the monolithic particle technology. General particle filtration in the same manner with an extraction column is also applicable to turbulent-flow chromatography techniques, discussed in Section

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What is filtration question answer? ›

filtration, the process in which solid particles in a liquid or gaseous fluid are removed by the use of a filter medium that permits the fluid to pass through but retains the solid particles.

What topic is filtration? ›

Filtration can be defined as the mechanical or physical process used for the separation of one substance from another, such as solids, liquids, and gases, with the aid of an interposing medium (filter).

What is filtration Class 6 short answer? ›

Answer: Filtration is the process of separating insoluble solid impurities from a liquid by passing it through a filtering device. Insoluble solid particles are retained in the filtering device but the liquid passes through it.

What have I learned about filtration? ›

Filtration is a process by which impurities or particles are removed from a fluid, either a liquid or a gas. The liquid, or feed, is poured over a filter, which catches particles and allows filtered liquid, or filtrate, to move through it. Surface filters are sieves of varying sizes.

What are the 3 types of filtration? ›

The Aquarium uses three main types of filtration: mechanical, chemical, and biological. Mechanical filtration is the removal or straining of solid particles from the water.

What are types of filtration? ›

Vacuum Filtration: In order to swiftly pull fluid through a filter, vacuum filtration uses a vacuum pump. Centrifugal Filtration: The material to be filtered is spun at a high speed during this filtration process.

Why is filtration so important? ›

The benefits of employing a filtration system are clear: Removes particles and substances from liquids. Enables liquids, oils, and coolants to be reused. Protects tools and machinery.

What is purpose of filtration? ›

Filtration is used to separate particles and fluid in a suspension, where the fluid can be a liquid, a gas or a supercritical fluid. Depending on the application, either one or both of the components may be isolated.

What are the 4 steps of filtration? ›

The Water Shop uses the Millenium four-stage filtration process for drinking water purity.
  • Pre-Filter. The Millennium pre-filter is a sediment/carbon block cartridge. ...
  • Membrane. Water travels from the pre-filter into the membrane. ...
  • Post-Filter. Any tastes or odors remaining in the water will be reduced by the. ...
  • Polishing Filter.

What are 2 examples of filtration? ›

Examples of Filtration
  • Brewing coffee involves passing hot water through the ground coffee and a filter. ...
  • The kidneys are an example of a biological filter. ...
  • Air conditioners and many vacuum cleaners use HEPA filters to remove dust and pollen from the air.
29 Jan 2020

What is filtration in your own words? ›

Filtration is the process of separating suspended solid matter from a liquid, by causing the latter to pass through the pores of some substance, called a filter. The liquid which has passed through the filter is called the filtrate.

Which type of filtration is the most important and why? ›

Biological filtration is a natural process, and is perhaps the most important of the three types of filtration. Adding a biological filter media enables the necessary bacteria to establish and maintain a healthy aquatic ecosystem.

How can filtration help the environment? ›

Water Filters Reduce Fossil Fuel Consumption

The less plastic that we need to produce, the less reliant we are on fossil fuels. This helps alleviate our carbon footprint and reduce harmful byproducts that come from the plastic manufacturing process.

What equipment is used for filtration? ›

Examples of this filtration equipment include disc filters, horizontal belt filters, rotary drum filters, rotary drum precoat filters, table filters, tilting pan filters, tray filters, and vacuum nutsches.

What is the best type of filtration? ›

Bottom Line: mechanical filtration makes your water clearer, biological filtration makes your water safer, and chemical filtration is something best saved for removing impurities from the water.

What are the 7 stages of water filtration? ›

Seven Steps of Water Purification
  • ION EXCHANGE AND COAGULATION. This is the first step of water purification process. ...
13 Apr 2019

Where does filtration occur? ›

Filtration is the mass movement of water and solutes from plasma to the renal tubule that occurs in the renal corpuscle. About 20% of the plasma volume passing through the glomerulus at any given time is filtered. This means that about 180 liters of fluid are filtered by the kidneys every day.

What does filtration depend on? ›

Filtration depends on pore sizes, the smaller the pores the more particles it can screen out, but it also takes more energy to force the liquid through it. Pore sizes can be as small as . 01 μm (μm=micrometer), small enough to stop viruses from passing through, but smaller proteins can still get through.

What materials are filters made of? ›

They are made of a pleated material which filters the air and may be made of cotton, synthetic paper or foam.

How filtration process is done? ›

Filtration is technically defined as the process of separating suspended solid matter from a liquid, by causing the latter to pass through the pores of a membrane, called a filter.

Do we need filtration? ›

The main importance of water filtration is to prevent water-related illnesses and diseases. Infants, elderly adults, and people with poor immune systems are more highly susceptible to experiencing adverse effects due to contaminated water from the tap.

How do we use filtration in everyday life? ›

In our daily life, we apply the process of filtration in many ways. A few examples are: We filter the hot tea using a mesh filter, where milk has dissolved the juices of tea leaves and sugar that is filtered out as filtrate whereas tea dust or leaves remains as a residue.

How does filtration affect quality? ›

Filtration has a dramatic effect on absorbed dose and exposure to the patient because it can decrease the overall intensity of the incident radiation. By absorbing the low- energy photons, this method of “hardening the beam” increases the overall energy, or quality, of the beam.

When was filtration used? ›

Water filtration illustration, circa 500 BCE. In the 1700's the first water filters for domestic application were applied. These were made of wool, sponge and charcoal. In 1804 the first actual municipal water treatment plant designed by Robert Thom, was built in Scotland.

How many filtration methods are there? ›

Two filtration techniques are generally used in chemical separations in general chemistry lab: "gravity" filtration and "vacuum" filtration. with the dominate solvent or solvents in the mixture to be filtered.

What are the two types of water filtration? ›

The two best types of water filtration systems are activated carbon filtration and reverse osmosis, both of which remove the highest number of contaminants while killing bacteria.

What is the most common filtration system? ›

The most popular systems include activated carbon, reverse osmosis, mixed media, and UV filters. However, most systems use a combination of these methods for optimal filtration. Ultimately, the type of system that's ideal for a home depends on the water quality of that region.

What can filtration separate? ›

Filtration is used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid. It is useful for separating sand from a mixture of sand and water, or excess reactant from a reaction mixture.

What is another word for filtration? ›

What is another word for filtration?

What is the best material for filtration? ›

Natural materials such as carbon, ceramic, and sand are some of the most efficient water filtration systems to protect against these deleterious effects.

What is simple filtration? ›

It is frequently accomplished via simple filtration, which involves placing filter paper in a glass funnel with the liquid passing through by gravity while the insoluble solid particles are caught by the filter paper.

What is filtration in Science Grade 7? ›

Filtration is the process of separating solids from liquids using filter paper . The process can be used to separate an insoluble solid, for example stone or sand grains from a liquid. The liquid could be a pure liquid, for example water, or it could be a solution , for example, salty water.

What is filtration system? ›

Filtration systems are used to process, separate, or clarify a stream by separating elements and removing debris. The goal of a filtration system is to cause the air or fluid being processed to be as pure as possible.

What is water filtration? ›

Water filtration is the process of removing or reducing the concentration of particulate matter, including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, and fungi, as well as other undesirable chemical and biological contaminants from contaminated water to produce safe and clean water for a specific purpose ...

Where is filtration used? ›

The liquid which has obtained after filtration is called the filtrate; in this case, water is the filtrate. The filter can be a paper, cloth, cotton-wool, asbestos, slag- or glass-wool, unglazed earthenware, sand, or any other porous material. Filtration is used in water treatment and sewage treatment.

Why is filtration useful? ›

Purification. Filtration is extremely important to keep things like water, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals clean, pure and free of contaminants. If it wasn't for filtration, we might not have safe drinking water, because it plays a crucial role in eliminating sediment, sand, gravel, carbon and other suspended particles.

What is the importance of filtration? ›

Filtration is very important for many commercial/industrial process water & wastewater reuse applications. In reality, pumping wastewater from somewhere like a refinery, food/beverage, textile or oil produced water application requires pre-filtration due to high amount of suspended solids in these typical applications.

What are the 4 stages of filtration? ›

The Water Shop uses the Millenium four-stage filtration process for drinking water purity.
  • Pre-Filter. The Millennium pre-filter is a sediment/carbon block cartridge. ...
  • Membrane. Water travels from the pre-filter into the membrane. ...
  • Post-Filter. Any tastes or odors remaining in the water will be reduced by the. ...
  • Polishing Filter.

What is the main process of filtration? ›

During filtration, the clear water passes through filters that have different pore sizes and are made of different materials (such as sand, gravel, and charcoal). These filters remove dissolved particles and germs, such as dust, chemicals, parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

How many types of filters are available? ›

The four primary types of filters include the low-pass filter, the high-pass filter, the band-pass filter, and the notch filter (or the band-reject or band-stop filter).

What filter is used for water? ›

Reverse osmosis is a highly effective way of purifying water and is usually combined with a number of other filters such as a mechanical (sediment) filter and an absorption (activated carbon) filter in order to return water with few contaminants remaining.

How filtering can clean water? ›

Simply put, filtration removes the impurities from water, nearly eliminating the risk from any debris or particles that might have been present. This results in filtered water that is cleaner and purer than in its original state, making it safe for use in ballast tanks, industrial systems, and much more.

What filtration system is most effective? ›

A reverse osmosis system is the most effective type of filter for drinking water.


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